The latest scientific studies selected in the training theme are presented below:

1) Takeuchi et al. (2023). Long-term static stretching can decrease muscle stiffness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, E-First.

This review examines the long-term (≥2 weeks) effect of static stretch training on muscle stiffness. The results of this review show a moderate decrease in muscle stiffness after 3 to 12 weeks of static stretching training compared to a control condition. However, the authors found no significant difference by gender, nor a significant relationship between total stretch duration and muscle stiffness.

2) Nokoff et al. (2023). Sex Differences in Athletic Performance: Perspectives on Transgender Athletes. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 1(3):p 85-95, July 2023.

This study analyzes the differences in performance between men and women, the factors explaining these differences, as well as the perspectives for transgender athletes. The differences in performance between the sexes appear from the onset of puberty in sports requiring strength, speed, power and endurance. Testosterone is the key determinant explaining these differences. In adulthood, men's testosterone concentrations are 12 to 20 times higher than those of women.

3) Darías et al. (2023). Individualized Mental Fatigue Does Not Impact Neuromuscular Function and Exercise Performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, E-First.

This study investigates the critical role of individual differences in mental fatigue by analyzing neurophysiological and physical responses to an individualized mental fatigue task. The conclusions of this study are that there is no evidence that mental fatigue negatively affects neuromuscular function or exercise.

4) Martínez-Hernández et al. (2023). Most common movements preceding goal scoring situations in female professional soccer. Science and Medicine in Football, E-First.

This study analyzes the patterns that occur in goal-scoring situations in women's professional football. The authors show the importance of direct game patterns, decelerations and changes of direction in the actions preceding a goal. This study could help practitioners to design training situations by integrating these specific movements in the offensive phases.

5) Jacob et al. (2023). External Training Load Monitoring and the Impact on Training Load Management in Collegiate Male Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, E-First.

This study retrospectively analyzes external workload (full distance and high intensity) and injury data over 3 seasons in 46 male Division 1 college football players. The results of this study conclude that demands for each athlete change weekly and between seasons. It is recommended that practitioners provide individualized training programs by monitoring workload while considering variables such as a team's style of play, experience, position, role in a program, training intensity and duration between training sessions and between matches.

6) Adam et al. (2023). A Comparison of Training and Match Play External Load During a Congested In-Season Period in English League 2 Football. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, E-First.

This study analyzes the differences between training days and match days concerning the external load metrics but also if these metrics vary according to the playing positions. This study revealed that the duration, the total distance, the intensity relative, high-intensity running distance, sprint distance, total number of accelerations and decelerations were different between match day (MD), two days before the match (MD-2) and one day before the match. game (MD-1). The session performed four days before the match (MD-4) was the most demanding, while the MD-2 and MD-1 sessions were the least demanding. Differences between positions were found in MD and MD-1 (defenders < midfielders and forwards).

7) Marco et al. (2023). Rationale and Practical Recommendations for Testing Protocols in Female Soccer: A Narrative Review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, E-First.

This review analyzes the different tests (aerobic, speed, changes of direction, strength, power, jumping and anthropometry) which allow the evaluation of the components of women's football and the protocols for monitoring the level of fitness. The 2 most common field tests used to assess aerobic fitness are the intermittent Yo-Yo test (levels 1 and 2) and the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. The ability to change direction is considered an important element to test, but no benchmark has been established, nor has the ability to repeat sprints. The power of the lower limbs can be evaluated by means of vertical jumps on a force platform, jumping mat or optoelectronic cells. Anthropometric parameters can be assessed using skinfolds, hydrodensitometry and ultrasound. However, DEXA remains the most reliable and valid method for measuring body composition.

8) Filter et al. (2023). High-intensity Actions in Elite Soccer: Current Status and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Sports Medicine, E-First.

This review is about the importance of high intensity action in football. The authors criticize the reductionist approach of many authors and practitioners to only analyze high-intensity actions quantitatively. They suggest integrating qualitative analyzes of these actions, including 'how' and 'why' these actions are taken by players.

9) Vagle et al. (2023). Physical Performance Profiles in Norwegian Premier League Female Football: A Descriptive Study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, E-First.

This study provides a mapping of the anthropometric and physical performance profiles of female football players in the Norwegian Premier League. She concludes that there was no difference in the physical qualities of strength, power, sprinting, agility and countermovement jumping between all playing positions on the court among female players. of the Norwegian Premier League. The only difference observed concerned the field players and the goalkeepers for the qualities of sprint and agility.

10) Dello Iacono et al. (2023). Programming High-Speed and Sprint Running Exposure in Football: Beliefs and Practices of More Than 100 Practitioners Worldwide. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, E-First.

This study provides insight into the beliefs and practices of football practitioners applying exposure programming strategies of high-speed running and sprinting. It provides information on strategies for planning, implementing and monitoring exposure to high-speed running and sprinting in football. According to the authors, there is a consensus on the importance of exposure for the development of physical abilities, preparation for competition and injury prevention strategies. However, they find a lack of consensus on the conceptual constructs defining the parameters of high-speed running, sprinting, and the methodological procedures used for tracking. A probable association was observed between match-related outcomes and the exposure strategies used during training.

11) Selmi et al. (2023). Verbal Encouragement Improves Game Intensity, Technical Aspects, and Psychological Responses During Soccer-Specific Training. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, E-First.

This study examines the effects of verbal encouragement on technical performance, exercise intensity, and enjoyment during reduced play. She concludes that coaches should use verbal encouragement during reduced games to maintain the intensity, technical performance and psychological state of football players.

12) Furley et al. (2023). A critical review of research on executive functions in sport and exercise. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, E-First.

This review focuses on the role of executive functions and more specifically: (1) the influence of sport and exercise in improving these executive functions, and (2) the effect of executive functions in improving sports performance. Executive functions include working memory, inhibition of control functions and cognitive flexibility. Participation in sports and the performance of physical exercise improve the function of the prefrontal cortex and executive functions. However, the evidence concerning the role of these executive functions on sports performance is unavailable given the too small number of studies on the subject.

13) Rey et al. (2023). Effectiveness of short vs. long-distance sprint training on sprinting and agility performance in young soccer players. Biology of Sport, E-First.

This study examines the effects of short-distance sprint training (SST) versus long-distance sprint training (LST) on short-, medium-, and long-distance sprint performance and agility in young footballers. It is concluded that the two sprint training distances used appear to be effective in improving soccer-specific performance measures.

14) Wey et al. (2023). Are EFI data valuable? Evidence from the 2022 FIFA World Cup group stage. Biology of Sport, E-First.

This study explores the effectiveness of enhanced football intelligence in match analysis and identifies key indicators that influence the match. It can help coaches interpret the game from a multidimensional perspective, and coaches can use this approach to help their teams improve game performance.

15) Casal et al. (2023). Effect of goalkeepers’ offensive participation on team performance in the women Spanish La Liga: a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Biology of Sport, E-First.

This study analyzes the effect of the distribution of goalkeepers on the offensive performance of the team, during the 2018/2019 and 2019-2020 seasons of the Spanish Women's Liga. The authors conclude that the most effective offensive sequences occur with dynamic transitions initiated with short passes.

16) Enes et al. (2023). Drop-Set Resistance Training versus Pyramidal and Traditional Sets Elicits Greater Psychophysiological Responses in Men. Perceptual and Motor Skills, E-First.

This study compares the effects of resistance training to pyramid and traditional weightlifting sets on men's psychophysiological responses. The findings of this study are that even with a similar total training volume, drop-set training elicited more pronounced psychophysiological responses than pyramid or traditional resistance training in resistance-trained men.

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